Implementation of soil & water actions

ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED IN BIOS PILOT PLOTS

SITES SELECTION

According to the results of the research some practical solutions were offered in the form of soil, water, biodiversity conservation actions to be implemented in three pilot plots. The three sites identified for the program collectively provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate sustainable agriculture practices for environmental protection and community development. The following criteria were utilised for site selection:

  • Physical Conditions: geomorphology of the territory, soil types and subtypes, climatic conditions, point and non-point sources of pollution, extent and severity of environmental degradation (of soil and water), ground water resources and suitability for investigation;
  • Social and Economic Conditions: type of farm (private, joint-stock company) and size, type of agricultural production (vineyards, orchards, grain crops, etc.), proximity to schools, colleges, universities, research institutions, extent of public health services;
  • Management and Logistic Capacity: existing technical/ mechanical capability (farm machinery, equipment, storage, equipment maintenance, accessibility, conditions of roads, available public transportation), day and overnight accommodations, office space, meeting/conference rooms, willingness to carry out  a part of work as in-kind contribution.

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From over 70 villages the following companies were selected: “TarSalAgro” Joint Stock Company from Tartaul de Salcie village, Cahul district, “Butestenii Grup” Joint Stock Company and “Plai-Sirbu” individual enterprise from Butesti and Molesti villages, Glodeni district and “Pirojcov-Izvoras” farmer enterprise from Cretoaia village, Anenii Noi district.

From the geographic standpoint, the three sites are representative of the three agro-climatic zones of Moldova which are critical for demonstrating and evaluating the applicability of production practices and techniques that are planned to be recommended for all of Moldova.  The strategic location of these sites in the north, centre and south of Moldova will also foster greater participation in the overall program and support at the national, regional and local level.

ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED IN BIOS PILOT PLOTS

a.     Activities implemented in “TarSalAgro” Joint Stock Company from Tartaul de Salcie village, Cahul district

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  • Soil conservation system is applied in vineyards and orchards (degree of: 3-100),

including:

  1.   Contour roads inclined against the slope for water excess evacuation during torrential rains in all possible cases
  2.  Forest belts
  3.  The channels for water retention and evacuation which are built with a secondary inclination of up to 1.5 degrees as opposed to the slope inclination.implementation-protection-3
  4.  The land dams capture the water flowing down the slope and distribute it into a channel for its evacuation
  5.  Barriers in the way of the water are built of any agricultural waste: straw, tree branches, twigs, etc., which are fixed in places where the rain usually forms rivulets.
  6.  Perennial grassed waterways.
  7.  The each 5th row is grassed.implementation-protection-4
  8.  Soil conservation tillage on of vineyards was carried out in order to plant perennial grasses in 3-5 interrows depending  on slopes steepness (200 ha)
  • The each 5th row of orchards is grassed
  • Arable land were protected from erosion through contour farming, roads with inclination opposite to the slope and through buffer stripes planted with perennial plants resistant to draught (60 ha)
  • Tree planting on the land affected by landslides and soil erosion (35 ha)implementation-protection-5
  • Integrated plant protection actions (mainly biologic means) were carried out in vineyards, which allowed fewer treatments with chemicals and prevented a certain amount of soil and water pollution (380 ha)
  • Maintenance works were carried out in the forest close to the village (22 ha)
  • Cleaning of natural springs in the forest close to the village and their protection was ensured (11)
  • Building of a lake for recreation purposes.
  • Plantation of forest species trees around the homes in the village.implementation-protection-6
  • In cooperation with the Mayor’s office actions for waste management were carried out,the activity being under permanent control.
  • Actions of cleaning village streets and maintaining the order on the village territory and surroundings were carried out.

b.    “Butestenii Grup” Joint Stock Company and “Plai-Sirbu” individual enterprise from Butesti and Molesti villages, Glodeni district.

Sol conservation tillage on arable land (400 ha)

  • Strip cropping (160 ha)implementation-protection-7
  • Tree planting on the land affected by soil erosion (1,0 ha)
  • Forest protection belts were repaired      2,0 ha
  • One water reservoir was cleaned
  • Two bridges were built in Butesti village
  • Eight unauthorized waste disposal sites were liquidated.
  • Actions for waste management were carried out, the activity being under permanent control.

c.      Activities implemented in “Pirojcov-Izvoras” farmer enterprise from Cretoaia village, Anenii Noi district.

 

  • Excluded of degraded land (landslides) from agricultural production  for aforestation and grassland (150 ha)
    • Utilisation of minimal tillage in vineyardsimplementation-protection-8
    • Sol conservation tillage on arable land (600 ha)
    • Planting of forest belts (5,0 ha)
    • Forest protection belts were repaired (1,5 ha)
    • Tree planting on the land affected by landslides (0.5 ha)
    • Changing the direction of farm roads  (with a secondary inclination of up to 1.5 degrees as opposed to the slope inclination so as to avoid its becoming an erosion intensifying factor 1 km)
    • Crop rotation for anti-erosion protection            (60 ha)implementation-protection-9
    • Strip cropping, use of buffer stripes (100 ha)
    • Planting of grass in orchards (30 ha)
    • Planting of grass in vineyards (15 ha).
    • One water reservoir was cleaned
    • Actions for waste management were carried out, the activity being under permanent control.
    • Utilization of biologic substances for orchards and vineyard protection from pests:

implementation-protection-20– Warning about the development of pests in plum orchards was performed through use of pheromone traps installed with the frequency of one trap per hectare on a surface of 40 hectares.  The traps were warning of the need to perform chemical sprayings, so that the chemicals were used only when strictly necessary and not according to old system schedules, thus a smaller amount of chemical was used.

– Warning and biologic destruction of pests in the apple orchard and vineyard.  Pheromone traps were prepared and installed in the orchard and vineyard with one to two traps per hectare frequency.  On a 20 hectares surface the traps had the frequency of 10 traps per hectare which allowed for the mass destruction of pests.

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