Soil research is a significant factor in the well-being of the rural population since soil is the main wealth of the country and it plays a great role in the decision making process in rural areas.
So, the main objectives of soil research performed by NGO BIOS were as follows: to know the current state of the soils, rate of degradation in order to develop new soil conservation technologies and to test and implement the old ones, to contribute to the awareness building in the issue of soils degradation and the consequences of the process for the economy and well being of the country among the central and local officials, new and old farmers, researchers, population at large, children.
The main soil analyses and determinations performed in pilot 3 farms are as follows: granulometric formation, micro-aggregate composition, structural composition, structural hydrostability, density, aparent density, water capacity in the field, wilting index, hygroscopicity index, resistance to penetration, hydrostability index, water permeability, soil humidity, nitrates, nitrification capacity of soil, structural index, dispersion index, crust formation index, humus contents, soil reaction (ph), contents of exchangeable cations, ion contents of water extract, total salt contents, nitric nitrogen contents, contents of mobile phosphorous and exchangeable potassium, contents of rare and dispersed elements, contents of residual pesticides, value of total, draining, useful and inactive porosity. It were studied the rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibity factors, slope length and steepness factors, cover management and support practice factors and did physical modeling of soil erosion process of soil eroded categories (weak, mean and strong), different farm crops, precipitation regimes, estimation of the soil erosion potential.
Based on research data and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation the Model for Evaluation and Control of Soil Erosion . MECES was developed. The most relevant data for the operation of the model were identified and collected from literature, statistical data and archives. Soil and water research was performed in three different localities from the three main zones of the country (South, Center, North). The meteorological data were copied from the relevant registers of the respective meteorological stations. The research data were input into the model along with the values of the standard or irrelevant indices. The practical work of the model was preliminarily tested in Tartaul de Salcie village with the participation of the local farmers. The recommendations and comments of the potential users were collected for processing and further refinement of the model. The research data collected for the model were organized in databases for subsequent use in the other models or for general information.
Based on research data and MECES the following products were developed: soil conservation territory planning for Cretoaia and Tartaul de Salcie villages, the agrochemical maps of soils on the studied territory, recommendations for the stabilization and for the increase of the effective fertility, determination of the need for local and chemical nutrients for the stabilization and increase of the effective fertility.
RESEARCH OF WATER QUALITY
Water quality was added to BIOS research priorities along with soil research due to the big problems with the health of the population arising from consumption of well water polluted with different pollutants and due to the fact the rural population in Moldova shows higher morbidity and mortality than the urban one, one of the factors contributing to the situation being, according to assumptions, the low quality of consumed water. The research of the water was done in all water sources of the pilot villages plus a part of wells in Cajba village.
The conclusion is that in Butesti only 28 wells out of 72 comply with the norms, in Tartaul only 17 out of 83, in Cajba – 58 out of 114 and in Molesti – only 5 out of 26. Pollution with nitrates is especially frequent.
The data of the analyses were used at special general meetings of the respective villages aiming at telling the population the data, cautioning the ones with polluted wells, revealing the possible sources of pollution.
Based on the obtained data the respective conclusions and recommendations were worked out.
RESEARCH OF THE PLANT PROTECTION ACTIONS
NGO BIOS together with partners from the Institute for Biologic Plant Protection perform research on Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM is an ecological approach to suppressing pest populations in which all available necessary techniques are consolidated in a unified program, so that pests are kept at acceptable levels in effective, economical and environmentally safe ways. By comparison, conventional pesticide-based programs focus on the individual pest and its control with little regard to the ecological relationships of the pest and its environment. The integrated use of multiple management options is a key to the cost-effectiveness of IPM. IPM minimises pesticide use and other environmentally disruptive pest control treatments to promote environmental quality, preserve the natural ecosystem, and reduce undesirable effects on non-target organisms. IPM promotes the use of methods that provide long-term pest control. One of the main components of IPM researched in NGO BIOS are pheromones, which are substances secreted and released by animal for detection and response by another of the same species. The most commonly used by man for Integrated Pest Management are Sex Pheromones and Aggregation Pheromones. Sex pheromones are typically released by the female to alert males to her presence, and assist them in finding her. Some members of the order lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) are able to detect and follow a pheromone trail or plume for over 2 miles. Pheromones are behaviour modifiers and they are utilized to alter the behaviour of insect pests in several ways: detection, monitoring, mass trapping, lure & kill and mating disruption. Since pheromones are highly specific, and one type of pheromone will only illicit a response in a select group of organisms, this means that we can use pheromones as an extremely precise tool within ecosystems. The researches performed in BIOS pilot farms showed the high efficiency of IPM means in comparisons with conventional ones
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