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Earth Day is celebrated every year on April 22 and on this occasion an alarm is sounded regarding the protection of the environment. This day was founded in order to arouse the interest of the political class towards the environment.

Earth Day was founded by US Senator Gaylord Nelson in 1970, with the aim of drawing the attention of the political class to the disinterest he showed in the environment. For the first time, this moment was marked by anti-pollution demonstrations throughout the United States, attended by about 20 million Americans. As a result of these demonstrations, US Senator Gaylord Nelson has managed to convince politicians of the need to adopt appropriate legislation for the protection of the environment: the law of fresh air, the control of toxic substances, water quality, etc.

From 1970 until today, every year, April 22 has been celebrated as Earth Day and events are organized to bring to people’s attention the need to protect the environment.

Earth day 2020 is not just the 50th anniversary of Earth Day. Also on this day in 2016, the Paris Agreement was signed to take measures to reduce and adapt to climate change. The theme for Earth Day 2020 is climate action. The enormous challenge – but also the vast opportunities — of action on climate change have distinguished the issue as the most pressing topic for the 50th anniversary.

It is necessary both on this day and every day to change the actions we take to change our lives and protect the environment.

Even during this time during the exceptional situation due to coronavirus, we must meditate and plan our actions so that it does not have a negative impact on the Earth.

On behalf of the Platform of the National Engagement Strategy in solving the land related problems, we urge all stakeholders, including central, district, local public administration, economic agents, scientific research institutions, universities, colleges, lyceums, gymnasiums, non-governmental organizations to plan and after this period (in which we are obliged to stay at home), carry out environmentally friendly sustainable actions, so that we not only exploit the Earth, but also take care of it.

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We express sincere thanks to BIOS partners for cooperation with us in the implementation of projects. We are grateful to all co-organizers of training events and to the contributors of materials published by BIOS for the information of our readers. Our highest appreciation is due to International Land Coalition, which made possible the regular issue of this Bulletin and other activities useful for the population of Moldova.

EDITORIAL TEAM

Elena Bivol, Claudia Partole, Valentin Ciubotaru

BioSynopsis nr. 36

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AG_tKT0xLJE

Description: The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth. It covers about 98% of the Antarctic continent and is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. It covers an area of almost 14 million square km and contains 26.5 million cubic km of ice.

That is, approximately 61 percent of all fresh water on the Earth is held in the Antarctic ice sheet, an amount equivalent to 70 m of water in the world’s oceans. In East Antarctica, the ice sheet rests on a major land mass, but in West Antarctica the bed can extend to more than 2,500 m below sea level. The land in this area would be seabed if the ice sheet were not there.

The icing of Antarctica began with ice-rafting from middle Eocene times about 45.5 million years ago and escalated inland widely during the Eocene – Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago. CO2 levels were then about 760 ppm and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. Carbon dioxide decrease, with a tipping point of 600 ppm, was the primary agent forcing Antarctic glaciation.

The glaciation was favored by an interval when the Earth’s orbit favored cool summers but Oxygen isotope ratio cycle marker changes were too large to be explained by Antarctic ice-sheet growth alone indicating an ice age of some size. The opening of the Drake Passage may have played a role as well though models of the changes suggest declining CO2 levels to have been more important.

Ice enters the sheet through precipitation as snow. This snow is then compacted to form glacier ice which moves under gravity towards the coast. Most of it is carried to the coast by fast moving ice streams. The ice then passes into the ocean, often forming vast floating ice shelves. These shelves then melt or calve off to give icebergs that eventually melt.

If the transfer of the ice from the land to the sea is balanced by snow falling back on the land then there will be no net contribution to global sea levels. A 2002 analysis of NASA satellite data from 1979 – 1999 showed that while overall the land ice is decreasing, areas of Antarctica where sea ice was increasing outnumbered areas of decreasing sea ice roughly 2:1.

The general trend shows that a warming climate in the southern hemisphere would transport more moisture to Antarctica, causing the interior ice sheets to grow, while calving events along the coast will increase, causing these areas to shrink. A 2006 paper derived from satellite data, measures changes in the gravity of the ice mass, suggests that the total amount of ice in Antarctica has begun decreasing in the past few years.

Another recent study compared the ice leaving the ice sheet, by measuring the ice velocity and thickness along the coast, to the amount of snow accumulation over the continent. This found that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet was in balance but the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was losing mass. This was largely due to acceleration of ice streams such as Pine Island Glacier. These results agree closely with the gravity changes.

The estimate published in November 2012 and based on the GRACE data as well as on an improved glacial isostatic adjustment model indicates that an average yearly mass loss was 69 ± 18 Gt/y from 2002 to 2010. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet was approximately in balance while the East Antarctic Ice Sheet gained mass. The mass loss was mainly concentrated along the Amundsen Sea coast.

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